8月 31

aug31Many common verbs are irregular in the simple past. There are some patterns, but mostly you just have to memorize them.

I run in races often. Yesterday I ran in one. Sometimes I come in first place. Yesterday I came in second. I also swim almost every day. Yesterday I swam for an hour.



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8月 28

aug28When you meet friends or family, one popular question to ask is, “What have you been up to?” This asks what a person has been doing lately, or maybe an interesting activity he or she did recently. The answer might be related to work, hobbies, or something new. It’s also common for the person to answer, “Not much” or “Nothing.”


家族や友達に会ったらよくきくこと:「What have you been up to? 最近何どうしてた?」は、最近何をしていたのか、何か面白いことしたか等、久しぶりに会った時にききます。答えは仕事、趣味、新しいことなどに関します。「Not much 別に」や「Nothing 何もない」も良くある答えです。

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8月 24

aug24Most verbs become past tense by adding “-ed”, but if there is already an E at the end, you only need to add the D. Sometimes the “-ed” is pronounced just as it looks: visited, tasted. Sometimes it sounds like just a D: jogged, fanned. Sometimes it sounds like a T: kissed, helped.


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8月 21

aug21“Vacation” and “holiday” are closely related. Holidays are special days of festivity or recreation, when work isn’t done. Vacations are extended periods of rest from work. British English uses “holiday” for when someone spends a holiday elsewhere: “She is holidaying in France” or “She’s on holiday.” In American English, “She’s vacationing in France” or “She’s on vacation” are more common.


「Vacation」と「holiday」の意味はとても似ています。「Holiday」は特別な祝日や娯楽の日で仕事をしません。「Vacation」は仕事を休んで取る長期休暇です。イギリス英語では旅行に行く場合「holiday」を使います。例えば「彼女はフランスに旅行に行っています」をイギリス英語では「She is holidaying in France」や「She’s on holiday」と言います。アメリカ英語では同じ意味でも、「She’s vacationing in France」または「She’s on vacation」と言うのが普通です。

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8月 10




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8月 10

aug10Some plural words don’t only add an S, but change other letters too. Many words that end in Y change to “-ies” when plural: cherries, ladies. But not if there is a vowel before the Y: monkeys, days.

Many words that end in F change to V when plural: knives, lives.

There are other patterns and irregulars, too!


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8月 07

aug7 shish-kebab-5-of-5Many people like to grill food outside in the summer, because cooking indoors heats up the house too much. One popular food to grill is shish kebab. Shish kebab is a row of small pieces of meat (but people also use vegetables or fruit) pierced on a sharp, thin metal or wood stick, then cooked on an open flame.

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8月 03

aug3When there is more than one of something, we add an S to the end of the word: “I have two cats.” Some words get “-es” because they already end in an S-like sound: kisses, dishes.

If the word ends in an unvoiced consonant, the S sounds like “S”: blocks, hats, maps. If there is a vowel or a voiced consonant before the S, it sounds like “Z”: dogs, cars, cows.


何かが二つ以上あるときは、言葉の最後にSをつけます:「猫2匹飼っています。」Sに似ている音で終わる言葉にはESをつけます:kisses (キス)、dishes (お皿)。

無声の子音で終わる単語なら、そのSの発音は普通に「S」です:blocks (ブロック)、hats (帽子)、maps (地図)。母音か有声の子音で終わると、「Z」に聞こえます:dogs (犬)、cars (車)、cows (牛)。

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